Рубрика ‘О Крыме — More about the Crimea.’

Glade of Fairy Tales and Zoo in Yalta.

There is a distinctive open-air museum — Glade of Fairy-Tales (“Polyana Skazok”) in Yalta. It was founded by folk artists Pavel Pavlovich Bezrukov in 1960 . The Glade of Fairy-Tales is situated at the foot of Stavry-Kaya cliff (“Cross cliff”) on the right bank of the Vodopadnaya Stream (“Waterfall stream”). There is a wonderful collection of wooden sculptures on fairy-tale theames.

It is an open air museum with a collection of 300 wooden sculptures, the personages of the popular Russian and Ukrainian fairy-tales, Crimean and Greek legends, many beloved cartoons heroes. They were made by 56 professional artists and skilled craftsmen from Yalta, Simferopol, Kiev, Moscow, Pervouralsk (Russia), Vilnus (Litvenia), Erevan (Armenia).  

You can see fantastical fairy-tale characters transformed from old stumps, logs or roots.

At the entrance thirty mighty heroes stand on guard defending the rest of the inhabitants of the glade.

A hut on the hen’s feet, a mermaid and a wood sprite, Ivan Tsarevich and the Grey Wolf, the Fire-bird, Baba-Yaga and Kashchey Immortal — these are the figures from Slavic fairy tales which you will meet in the Glade.

Lesoviki — little wood dwarfs — are under the branches of a Crimean oak whispering something to each other. They look funny and amusing! The cracked stump of an old horn-beam tree, gnarled roots and moss helped to make the head of a fairy-tale giant. What a funny Hedgehogs! They look as if they have been made of a whole piece of wood occasionally found in the forest. Listen to them and you will hear a lot of their secrets. (далее…)

The Livadia Palace.

Livadia (“Meadow”) is a settlement 6 kilometers far from Yalta. The main sight in the settlement is the Livadia Palace. It is the former summer residence of the Russian tsar. The paiace was built by the architect Nickolai Krasnov in 1911, and for his work Nickolai Krasnov was given the title of Academician in Architecture. (далее…)

The Alupka Palace

 P5010636_1 У-------The Alupka Palace is the main sight of the town. It was built for one of the richest landlords of Russia, the governor-general of the Novorossiysky Krai, Prince Mikhail Semyonovich Vorontsov.

The palatial ensemble embodies many typical features of the 16th century English Tudor castle.

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The palace was built according to a project by English architect Edward Blore (1789–1879)

The count incorporated many English architects into the work:F. Elson built the old House and the Tea House. F. Bauffod and T. Harrison were busy with the design. An important architectural characteristic of the Alupka palace was its relation to the nearby Crimean Mountains, with which it harmonized perfectly.

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Stone walls, loophole windows and triangular buttresses give the palace the appearance of a medieval castle. But when you enter the front courtyard here you’ll see that the palace resembles nobleman’s country- seat. It is organically integrated into the surrounding landscape.Ай-Петри

The Alupka Palace is now an architectural and art museum. It contains the furnishings and art collections, which had been in the palace itself and the collections from other estates on the Southern coast of the Crimea. On the interior walls of the entrance hall is an inscription written in Arabic: «There is no Conqueror, except Allah.» (далее…)

SOUTH COAST OF THE CRIMEA.

Our country is distinguished for an unusual variety of nature but there are few truly warm subtropical places on its immense territory — the South Coast of the Crimea. Each has features of its own.

The Crimean South Coast enjoys a particular popularity. As the sociologists’ research has shown a tremendous number of people prefer taking a holiday precisely here, due to the traditions, proximity to the densely populated centers, reliability of the transport connections and, of course, the climate. A few kilometers away, beyond the mountain passes, a snow-storm may rage, while on the South Coast loquat and honeysuckle are in bloom.

Naturally, frosts do occur, sometimes snow falls, but on the whole, the winter here is more like the autumn in the Central Belt of Russia. This phenomenon is accounted for both by the mountains and the warm sea. (далее…)

The Sudak fortress.

Sudak is a small historic town located in Crimea. Today it is a popular resort, best known for its Genoese fortress, the best preserved on the northern shore of the Black Sea.

The Sudak fortress is an outstanding monument of fortification architecture of the 14-15th centuries. It was built by the Genoese who settled in Feodosia and began to develop the Black Sea Coast in the XIII century.

Enlarging their dominion they seized Soldaia (later name Sudak) in 1365. To consolidate their power the Genoese built mighty fortresses. One of the major ones was the fortress in Sudak, built from 1371 to 1469. (далее…)

Simeiz.

Simeiz (“Sign”) is located by the southern slopes of the main range of Crimean Mountains at the base of Mount Koshka, 18 kilometers (12 miles) west from Yalta.

There are prehistoric dolmens nearby; Simeiz (“Sign”) lies in the locality where at one time there were Tauri settlements and fortifications.

Their remains are to be found on the mount Koshka (“Cat-mount”)-it is the shape of the mountain resembles a sitting cat.

The height is 254 metres. On the mountain’s western slope lies the biggest Tauri necropolis on the Southern coast.

In the Middle Ages the area was under the control of the Byzantine Empire, which built a fortified monastery in the vicinity .

As the Byzantine power weakened, the area fell under the control of Genoa, which in its turn gave way to the Ottoman Empire; under the Ottomans the village was ruled from Mangup.

By 1778, with the departure of the Christian population, the village was depopulated.

The ruins of a monastery and fortified walls which stands on the seashore are seen near the Sail – Rock.

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Oreanda. Gaspra. Koreiz.

Oreanda.

If you walk from Livadia palace along the «Sunny path” (former «Tsar’s path»)

a haif- rofunda. Below stretches a very old park in the midst of which lies the cluster of buildings of the Nizhnyaya Oreanda Sanatorium.

In the 1820s the Romanovs acquired Oreanda (“Border”) and in 1852 a luxurious palace was built here for the Grand Duke Constantine. But the palace was burnt down in 1882.

The park was laid out while the palace was being built; the contours of its small ponds reproduce

the outlines of the Sea of Azov, the Black, the Caspian and the Aral Seas.

On the elevation to the left of the sanatorium stands a grey church, which was built from the stones of the burnt down palace. This church is mentioned in Chekhov’s story «The Lady with the Dog».

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Alupka.

Ай-Петри

The first written reference to Alupka dates back to the year 960 A.D. The name is supposed to derive from the Greek word «alepu» which means «a fox». The settlement is situated on the mountainous terrain and is unplanned. Homes were built along the mountain paths, which now are the streets. (далее…)

Miskhor -“Half Town”.

Miskhor (“Half Town”) is a resort situated between Yalta and Alupka

The first known inhabitants in these parts were the Tauri, then Romans built a fortress on Cape Ai-Todor.

In the Middle Ages the Romans withdrew from the Southern Coast and a monastery was founded by Fyodor Tyron on Cape Ai — Todor (“Saint Theodore”).

The Swallow’s Nest.     Read more… (далее…)

Gurzuf.

Gurzuf («mountain valley») is a picturesque Crimean scenery which is situated 16 kilometers to the east of Yalta.

The first written reference about Gurzuf occurs in the writings of the Byzantine writer Procopius (500-562) who lived at the time of the emperor Justinian I (483-565). Procopius writes about the construction of a Byzantine fortress «in the district of Gurzovit».

In the 8th century, the fortress had grown in size and soon was surrounded by a second ring of fortification. Though the fortress was destroyed by Khazars, by the middle of the 12th century it was rebuilt again. The Arab geographer al-ldrisi was able to write about the «flourishing town» of Garzuni. The town was destroyed and changed hands so often that by the end of the 15th century it had become a small village.

At the beginning of the 19thcentury Gurzuf became the property of the Novorossiysk governor-general, the duke de Richelieu (1766-1822).

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Massandra.

Massandra is situated 3 kilometers far to the East from Yalta.

The high hills of Nikita mountain pasture, the highest point of Mauntin Avinda is 1473 meters, protect Massandra from the cold air from the North and the southern winds bring the fresh breath of the Black sea. The Massandra park is one of the most beautiful parks of the Southern Coast. It was laid in the 1840 by the German horticulturist Kari Kebach, he was the founder of the Alupka park as well. The park was laid out by the serf labour of the peasants brought by Count Vorontsov from all the provinces of Russia. There are more than 200 tree and bush species grow in the Massandra park on its 40 hectares nowadays. The park was planned in the English style with curvilinear paths and picturesque groups of trees.

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Yalta («Coast»)

Yalta («Coast») stretches along the coast of a sea bay on the slope of the Main Ridge of the Crimean Mountains. In ancient times the Greek settlement of Jalita existed on this territory. In the Middle Ages there was the Byzantine and Genoese settlement, they named it as Kaulita.

In 1837 it was turned into a district city which began to be developed according to the 1843 plan.

At the end of the 19th century Yalta has a rapid growth, and the development of valleys of the Derekoika and the Uchan-Su Rivers.

Now it is a significant resort and cultural centre whose boundaries widened thanks to multistory housing developments on the adjoining slopes. The city territory incorporates land from the mount Ayu-dag to the Sarych Cape.

Greater Yalta is a 70-km stretch of the South Crimean coast washed by the Black Sea. The mount Ayu-dag (“Mount Bear”) is a kind of signpost to Greater Yalta. Farther on the highway goes past Gurzuf, the Nikita Botanical Gardens and Massandra.

The resorts and sights of interest located to the west are Livadia, Oreanda, Gaspra, Koreiz, Miskhor, Alupka and Simeiz

A snow-white city lies inside the enormous shell formed by a semicircle of mountains. Yalta is beautiful in her mountain setting, she is open only to the sea and the sun.

The cypresses with cones like little bells have already become a symbol of the resort. Magnificent magnolia trees fill the air with their perfume… And the sea adds the finishing touch to all this beauty. Once you arrive in Yalta you will fall in love with it!

We suggest you begin your walking tour of Yalta with an itinerary that might be called Along the City’s Streets, that is from the Yalta Hotel to the Oreanda. Its length is about 3 kilometers.

The Yalta Hotel is situated near Massandra Park. Massandra Beach stretches from the Yalta

Hotel to the port. At the intersection of streets stands Primorskiy Hotel (“Sea-coast Hotel”), one of the oldest in Yalta.

From here you can walk down to the port, in the other direction a small street leads uphill from the Hotel to Polikur Hill. Here is where Yalta originated, witness is the very name Polikur (“Paleokhor”), which in Greek language means «Old Place». The Hill formerly bore the name of St. John.

Yalta is the only port on the Crimea’s southern shore which can safely shelter ships in a storm. The talented engineer A.Bertier — Delagarde supervised the construction of the Yalta mole in 1889-1892.

Near the port there is the Yuzhnaya Hotel (“Southern Hotel”) which stands on Roosevelt Street. It is the oldest street in the city and was given its present name in honour of the outstanding statesman US President Franklin Roosevelt (1882-1945), who visited Yalta in February 1945.

Yalta‘s main street is the Embankment. It is favorite avenue of holiday makers for their even strolls. The Embankment te lined with shops, cafes, and restaurants. There is the oldest Tavrida Hotel, that was built in 1875. The great Russian poet Nickolai Nekrasov lived in Tavrida Hotel in room 68. He wrote the part of his long poem «Who Can Be Happy in Russia?» in Yalta.

If you cross the Hotel Tavrida’s courtyard, you will find yourself next to the boarding platform for the cable-car line which leads to the top of Darsan Hill. There is the Mound of Glory, erected in memory of the fallen during the Civil and Great Patriotic Wars.

If you walk past it, you will again come out into the Embankment. Soon you will reach the quays where the pleasure boats dock. Here you can embark on an excursion to the towns of the Greater Yalta: Alupka, Miskhor, Simeiz…

Ahead lies the second half of the Embankment. The Municipal Park, which merges with it, was established in the 1880s. There is the monument to the great Russian writer Anton Chekhov near Municipal Drama Theatre.

In 1900 the Moscow Art Theatre gave tour performances. The members of the company came to show the sick Chekhov his play «The Seagull». Chekhov was presented with palm leaves tied with a red ribbon bearing the inscription «To Anton Chekhov, a perfect interpreter of Russian reality.»

The great Russian singer Fyodor Chaliapin (1873-1838) sang on the stage of the Municipal Drama Theatre. His singing was accompanied by the outstanding Russian musician Sergey Rakhmaninov (1873-1943)

In the house across the theatre lived the famous Ukrainian poetess Lesia Ukrayinka (1871-1913) A bronze statue has been set up in her memory right in front of the house.

The final stop of the Embankment tour is the Oreanda hotel. Across from the hotel is a small public garden where the schooner Espanolahas been mounted. It has been built specially for the film about the sea-advantures.

Greater Alushta.

Alushta is an ancient town on the Crimea’s Southern Coast. Alushta inherited its name from the Byzantine fortress of Aluston, which was built here in the 6th century A.D. by order of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I (483-565) who also rebuilt the church of St. Sophia at Constantinople. In the present-day you can look round the remains of the Byzantine fortress, its defense tower and part of a wall. Alushta attracts tourists by its unusual climate, pleasant beaches and picturesque surroundings. (далее…)

Stary Krym — «Old Crimea».

Stary Krym («Old Crimea») is a quiet, modest town in the Eastern Crimea, its history numbers not one millenium.

At the beginning of the 1st millenium there was a Taun settling Karia here, then it bore the name of Surkhat and in XIII-XV cc. — Solkhat. The last two names originally come from Armenian «surbkhach» that is «the holy cross».

At the end of the XV century the town was conquered by the Tatars and called Eski Krym (“Old Moat”). The  formation of the Crimean khanate with the capital in Bakhchisarai Eski Krym lost its former importance. After the annexation of the Crimea it was planned to make Stary Krym its capital and rename it Simferopol.

Stary Krym is situated at the foot of the Mount Agarmysh (“Whitish”) which is 724 meters above sea level. In summer the mount gets warm and creates an ascending airflow, which is conductive to formation of a cumulus cloud. The influence of the mount on the local climate is very favorable for treatment of lung patients. (далее…)

Kerch.

There are several ancient cities on the territory of the Eastern Crimea, among them is Kerch.

The city has rich historical background and is considered to be an archeological reserve.

In the 6th century B.C.Greek colonists from Miletus founded a city-state named Panticapeum (“Fish Way”)on Mount Mithridat. Soon Panticapaeum became the capital of the Bosporan Kingdom.

During the rule of Mithradates VI Eupator(121 — 63 B.C.), Panticapaeum became the capital of much more powerful and extensive Kingdom of Pontus. The main city’s exports was salted fish, such as herring, mullet, anchovy, sprat, red mullet, sturgeon, flounder. There were many beautiful vineyards around the city, so the city’s exports was grain, vine and wine-making was also common here. Panticapaeum minted its own coins, it was cupper, silver and gold coins. Ethnically the city’s population was Scythian.

In ancient Panticapeum majestic buildings were set up on the Mithridates Mount.

The archeological excavations on Mithridates Mount discovered the monumental barrows with rich burials of slave-owning nobility of the Bosporan Kingdom well preserved in the vicinity. There are the Royalburials of the 4th century B.C. at Kul-Oba testifies (438 B.C.) . (далее…)

Koktebel.

I greet you, in spring crucified,

My magnificent Koktebel!

Maximilian Voloshin

Koktebel… It sounds French, but originally it is a combination of three Turkic words: «kok» — blue, «tepe» -top, «el» — settling, land. Koktebel – it’s the “blue-top-settling”-land. It’s the land of the blue mountain peaks…

Nobody knows the year when Koktebel came into being. It is well known there was a Middle Age settlement here in the VIII century. The valleys around the mount Kara-Dag had been settled since that time.

At the beginning of the 1st century the legendary Cimmerians lived here, in the Middle Ages — the descendants of Tauri, Scythians mixed with the Bosphor peoples — Greeks, Sarmatians and Alans. In the 10th century the settlement was ruined by Pechenegs, nevertheless, life came back here soon.

A Crimean-Tatar village came into being here and at the beginning of the XIX century the people who came from Bulgaria settled in Koktebel. The settling was connected with Feodosia by a dusty earth road. (далее…)

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