City Simferopol.

Simferopol is the administrative, industrial and cultural centre of the Crimea since 1784 but the locality was populated from time immemorial. It is situated in a vast hollow between the Outer and Inner Ridges of the Crimean mountains, on the banks of the Salghir River.

In the 4th century the Scythians built the capital of their kingdom, Scythian Neapolis, on a high plateau, and it existed six centuries.

In the early 16th century, a Tartar settlement of Ak-Mechet -“White Mosque” appeared on the left bank of the Salghir River. It became the residence of the Crimean Khan’s heir.

According to the plan of 1842 a maze of curvilinear streets of Ak-Mesdjit was left to the southeast of the main street(now Kirov Avenue), and to the north and west of it rectangular blocks began to appear.

An April 8, 1783 the Manifesto of the annexation of the Crimea was declared.

Istanbul recognized the act of annexation on June,10, 1783.

Since 1783 the Crimea was the Russian Land. Read more…

In 1784 Simferopol was chosen for the central city of the Taurian Region.

The city was called Simferopol (sim — together, ferro — carry, polis – city), so the name of the city Simferopol means “the City Gatherer”, that is why on its City Coat of Arms there is a bee on the honeycomb is represented.

In the late 19h century the city crossed over to the right bank of the Salghir. Modern Simferopol has retained its nucleus with historically valuable buildings. Interesting public edifices constructed according to individual design are now being built in the centre. Large housing estates with multistory buildings have sprung around Simferopol during the last decades

The railway station of Simferopol is first to welcome the guests of the Crimea and its residents This one of the most prominent works in architecture has an asymmetric composition. Waiting halls and booking offices are grouped around the inner courtyard, which opens up to the square. This main building is connected with the luggage section and a high clock tower.

The railway station bears features of the Italian Renaissance and is marked by the harmonious proportions and monumentality. It was built to the design of the well-known architect A.Dushkin in 1951-1952.

There are many historical monuments and memorials in the capital of the Crimea.

The obelisk which marks the place of the headquarters of the Russian Army which liberated the Crimea from the Turks in 1771. Shtreichenberg built the 18-metre high obelisk in 1842 after the design. It stands on pedestal into which Plates are mounted. They bear a bas-relief portrait of the Commander of the Army, prince V.M. Dolgorukov and his family coat of arms. The stepped base is enclosed with a metal chain on stone pillars, near which 18th century guns stand.

The monument to A.V. Suvorov (1730-1800) stands on the place of the former camp of Russian troops which the general commanded in 1777. First the bust of A.V. Suvorov was installed in 1951, but in 1984, sculptor V.Gordeyev made a new monument. Its pedestal is executed like a granite bastion. A statue of A.V. Suvorov, made of forged copper rises on a small rock.

The Russian Theatre of Drama is the oldest in the Crimea. Architect A. Beketov who used forms of Art Nouveau and antique architecture built it in 1910-11 after the design. Artist I.Suvorov decorated the interior. Many outstanding actors and musicians like F.G. Ranevskaya and I.O. Dunayevsky worked here.

During the Great Patriotic War the underground patriotic group “Sokol” (Falcon) was active here and it is commemorated by a memorial plaque.

The Vorontsov Palace stands in a picturesque park on the bank of the Salghir. Architect F.Elson built the palace in 1826 after a design for D.V. Naryshkin, Governor of Tauris, on money donated by M.S. Vorontsov.

The main building in the Empire style faces the park. In its front are a colonnade and a terrace with a wide stone stairway with sculptures of lions on its parapets. Exotic forms of Moslem architecture were used in the design of wooden columns as well in the building for guests nearby.

During his exile to the south, in September 1820 Alexander Pushkin spent about a week in Simferopol. The monument to the poet was made by sculptor A. Kovalyov in 1967. Its low pedestal harmonizes successfully with a sitting bronze statue.

In the early 20th century the two-storied mansion of Dinzer, known as a “Chess — and -checkers club” was built on a bank of the Salghir. The building with an asymmetric composition and a decorative dome is especially attractive for its Baroque forms enriched with columned porticos and terraces.

The Crimean Medical Institute is situated on the plot, where in 1844 a nursery garden was planted by the founder of the Nikita Botanical Gardens Christian Steven (1781-1863).

In 1863- 1866 a school for girls was built here and in 1931 a medical institute was opened.

On the same plot P. Krzhizhanovsky built a three-storied hostel for medical students after the design in 1934. The building with clear geometric masses was completed in 1938.

Architects S. Afzametdinova and V. Yudin completed the building of the Crimean Ukrainian Theatre of Drama and Musical Comedy in 1977 after the design. It is characterized by its asymmetrical composition and the contrast of huge glass panels with monumental galleries.

The theatre began to function in 1955. Along with modern plays, its repertoire includes classical and Ukrainian’s one.

The Crimea is called an open — air museum. Its unique historical and cultural monuments have made it world-famous. The Crimea’s museums contain valuable items. Their collections number about 800,000 of them.

To have a general idea of the peninsula’s history and nature, its flora and fauna, geological past and heroic events one have to visit the Crimean Museum of Regional Study in Simferopol.



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