Ancient Chersonesus.

Ancient Chersonesus was the last Greek colony emerge on the north coast of the Black Sea: it was founded in 422 ВС. In the words of Cicero it Was like a border sewn on the barbarian lands.

Chersonesus (Peninsula), was so named for its location on a peninsula between two bays. The city existed for 2,000 years. Agriculture, construction, pottery-making, bone-carving, and some other crafts flourished in Chersonesus. Read more »

Balaclava.

Balaclava («Fish Nest») is a splendid and beautiful 3000 years old town situated in a small cozy bay. The sea coast of the bay were inhabited from the ancient times.

The ancient Greeks who settled here in 422 called it Syumbolon Limpe that is Harbour of Signs or Presage.

The Tauriset fire on the coast to attract the ships sailing by. The ships were robbed and the seafarers had to be sacrifices on Cape Phyolent in the temple of their goddess. It is believed that it was the port of lestrigones Lamosa.

In accordance with mythology the lestrigons were cannibals whom Odysseus and his fellows met during their voyage. Read more »

«Старое время» в бархатный сезон.

В сентябре этого года в Крыму состоится уникальное ралли на ретро-автомобилях «Бархатный сезон. Крым-2011». Организатор ралли –российская компанияпо реставрации и продаж подержанных автомобилей «Старое время» (Москва, Россия). Руководитель проекта Надежда Курило, рассказала, что в IV Международном фестивале «Старое Время» в Крыму будут участвовать около 30 автомобилей выпущенных до 1965 года с экипажами из Украины, России, Прибалтики и других стран Европы и один экипаж из США. Ралли стартует предположительно из Симферополя и пройдет по крымским городам — Евпатория, Севастополь, Ялта, Алушта, Феодосия, Керчь. Правительство Крыма оказывает всяческую помощь организаторам программы, которые сделают фестиваль действительно интересным и зрелищным.

Насладитесь отдыхом в Алуште в бархатный сезон.

Адам Мицкевич.

Долина вся в цветах. Над этими цветами

Рой пёстрых бабочек – цветов летучих рой –

Что полог, зыблется алмазными волнами;

Над бездною морской стоит скала нагая.

Бурунк ногам её летит и, раздробясь,

И пеною, как тигр глазами, весь сверкая,

Уходит с мыслию нагрянуть в тот же час.

Но море синее спокойно – чайки реют,

Гуляют лебеди и корабли белеют.

(Алушта.1825) Read more »

Sevastopol – the port of the Black Sea Fleet.

Sevastopol (“a city worth of worship”, Glorious City) has a special administrative status, a large sea port and a naval base of the Ukrainian and Russian Fleets, industrial, scientific and cultural center of the South of Ukraine.

The territory of Sevastopol was settled at the beginning of the 1st millenium ВС. The rests of the fortifications of a Tauri settlement of the IX century ВС were discovered in the outskirts of Inkerman (Uch-Bash (Three Heads) height). There are some burial grounds in the valley of the river Chernaya (Black river). There were Tauri (VII century ВС) settlements near Balaclava.

Homer describes the Bay of Balaclava as a port of Lestrigons where Odysseus stayed. There are ruins of ancient city-colony of Chersonesus (Peninsula) between two bays now known as

Karantinnaya and Pesochnaya. By the 1st century Chersonesus had fallen to the Roman Empire. Cherson was chief Byzantine bastion in the Crimea.

In 988 warriors of Kievan Prince Vladimir besieged Chersonesus. The residents of Chersonesus were forced to surrender their town. In the 13th century, Byzantium — began to decline, in the 14th century Cherson was left in ruins…

In 1770s Balaclava Bay became a naval base for ships of the Azov battleship flotilla. In spring 1773 the commander of the flotilla vice-admiral O.N. Senyavin (1716-1797) ordered to investigate the Bay of Akhtiar-Ak-Yar (White Precipice). The bay was investigated by the navigator I. Baturin from the battleship «Modon» under command of lieutenant F.F. Ushakov (1745-1817), future famous naval commander.

The bays were highly estimated by the commander of Russian troops in the Crimea Alexander Suvorov(1730-1800) who ordered to build fortifications at the bays and made them secure against the enemy’s battleships.

On November 17, 1782 the first Russian frigates «Khrabry» and «Ostorozhny» entered the harbour of Akhtiar for the winter stay. On the northern side of the bay the naval depots

built the barracks — the first building in the city to be. On January 11, 1783 vice-admiral F. A. Klokachev was appointed to»… command the fleets created on the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov.» The ships under his command entered Akhtiar on May 2, 1783. There were only 17 of them but it was already the Black Sea Fleet.

The construction of the port was conducted under supervision of flag-officer lieutenant

D.N.Senyavin(1763-1831), famous fleet commander to be.

On June 3,1783 the first stone buildings were laid: the house for the admiral, a wharf, a smithy and a chapel. On July 2, 1783 the commander of the squadron F.F. Mekenzi reported to Peterbourgh about creation of the small Admiralty. In the construction of the town many of the civilians from Crimea and the central Provinces of Russia were employed.

On January 10, 1784 in the instructions of Catherine II to Prince G. A. Potemkin it was advised that a strong fortress with a port and a military settlement should be built on the site of the village of Akhtiar.

In 1790 rear-admiral F.F. Ushakov became Commander of the Black Sea Fleet. In 1824 the public garden, now Primorsky boulevard, was laid, later appeared Matrosky and Historical.

In 1834 the first monument of Sevastopol was set up in honour of the heroic feat of the brig «Mercury».

In 1871 on the initiative of M.M. Miklukho-Maklay the Sea Biological Station of the Academy of Sciences was opened. In Sevastopol the electric «candle» of P. N. Yablochkov was invented. A.S. Popov installed radio stations on the battleships.

The Crimean war proved the necessity of a strong fleet.

In 1883 in Sevastopol the iron c-clad battleships were built and seven years later the town was officially proclaimed a sea fortress.

The Black Sea Fleet was the first to beat off the air attacks of the German fascists. The defense of Sevastopol lasted 250 days. On May 9, 1944 Sevastopol was liberated by the armies of the 4th Ukrainian Front. Day and night the torches of Eternal Glory burn over the Hero-City of Sevastopol. Sapun Mount and Malakhov hill hold them highest.

Sevastopol is a busy city. It fishes in distant Atlantic and builds giant cranes, discovers the mysteries of the sea and raises new housing blocks…

Under the administrative authority of Sevastopol there are 2 settlements and 2 villages.

Verkhnesadovoye (Upper Garden) is a village situated in the valley of Belbek River at the Highway Simferopol — Sevastopol. It appeared in 1850s. In the vicinity of the village there is a Tauri burial ground. During the defence of Sevastopol 5 seamen of the Black Sea Fleet at the cost of their lives stopped the German tanks in November 1941. There is the Diorama dedicated to the heroic feat of the seamen. The farm center of Verkhnesadovoye specializes in vine growing and gardening.

Kacha is a settlement situated 23 km from Sevastopol at the Black Sea coast not far from the estuary of the River Kacha. The settlement was founded in 1912 when the first in Russia pilot school was transferred here. The school existed till 1941. Among its cadets were the famous pilots G.P. Baidukov (1928), S.P.Suprun (1931), P.D. Osipenko (1932), B.F. Safonov (1934) , A.I. Pokryshkin(1939), Amet-Khan Sultan (1940),- the military school of pilots being transferred to Volgograd still bears the proud name of Kacha, glorified by the famous aces.

The farmers of Kacha are engaged in vine-growing and the farm center winery.

Kamyshovaya Bukhta(Rushy Bay) is a settlement founded in 1952 in connection with the organization of the Azov-Black Sea base of fishing and fish-processing. It lies at the Black Sea coast 13-km from Sevastopol. Kamyshovaya Bukhta is a base of the fishing industry union «Atlantika» which includes: fishing fleet, sheep-repairing yard, fish cannery and sea fish port.

Orlinoye (Aquiline) is a village situated in the Baidar-Valley on the high way Sevastopol — Yalta 35 km afar from Sevastopol. The village came into being in connection with construction of the new high way. In the vicinity of the village there are 25 archeological monuments including the rests of settlings of the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic Ages. There are the ruins of a Christian monastery (X-XV cc.) and a feudal castle of the XII-XIV cc.

The farm centre of Orlinoye supplies Sevastopol and the resorts of the South Cost of the Crimea with milk, meat, vegetables and fruits. The farmers are also engaged in wheat and tobacco growing as well as in raising vegetables under glass.

City Simferopol.

Simferopol is the administrative, industrial and cultural centre of the Crimea since 1784 but the locality was populated from time immemorial. It is situated in a vast hollow between the Outer and Inner Ridges of the Crimean mountains, on the banks of the Salghir River.

In the 4th century the Scythians built the capital of their kingdom, Scythian Neapolis, on a high plateau, and it existed six centuries.

In the early 16th century, a Tartar settlement of Ak-Mechet -“White Mosque” appeared on the left bank of the Salghir River. It became the residence of the Crimean Khan’s heir.

According to the plan of 1842 a maze of curvilinear streets of Ak-Mesdjit was left to the southeast of the main street(now Kirov Avenue), and to the north and west of it rectangular blocks began to appear.

An April 8, 1783 the Manifesto of the annexation of the Crimea was declared.

Istanbul recognized the act of annexation on June,10, 1783.

Since 1783 the Crimea was the Russian Land. Read more… Read more »

Adam Mickiewics in the Crimea.

«Part of the Crimea between the mountains and the sea is one of the most beautiful landscapes in the world. The sky is clear and the climate is mild the same as in Italy, but the greenery is more beautiful» so Adam Mickiewicz wrote in one of his letters to his brother.

For the activity in a secret patriotic organization the poet was arrested and exiled in 1823. In 1825 on board the yacht «Carolina» he sailed to the land which excited the poet’s imagination. In two stormy days the yacht arrived at Yevpatoria. Mickiewicz enthusiastically gave high praise to the event:

«I am merry! I am powerful! I am free! I am like a bird!»      Read more… Read more »

Lesia Ukrayinka in the Crimea.

The name of Lesia Ukrayinka went down in historv of the Ukrainian literature equally with the names of т Shevchenko and I. Franko.  Lesia Ukrainka’s poems were written in the Crimea. Lesia Ukrayinka lived in Yalta, Yevpatoria, Saki Balaclava and visited Bakhchisarai. 

For the first time she came to Yalta in 1888 when she was 17. In Yalta she created a series of poems «Travelling to the Sea» and «The Crimean Memoirs».

In January 1897 Lesia Ukrayinka again came to Yalta. The young poetess writes her first dramatic work «Iphigenia in Tauris».

In 1907-1908 Lesia Ukrayinka the third time came to the Crimea. She lived in Balaclava, Yalta and Yevpatoria.            Read more… Read more »

Alexander Pushkin in the Crimea.

In August 1820, while in exile, A. Pushkin stayed two weeks in Gurzufwith the family of the Rayevskys. While sailing to Gurzuf he wrote the famous lines of his elegy «The Day Luminary Has Sunk…» Alexander Pushkin admired the scenery of Gurzuf, with poplars like magnificent green columns and huge Ayu-Dag.

Later A.S. Pushkin wrote: «In Yur-zuf I had nothing to do, I bathed in the sea, overate grapes. I liked, awake at night, to listen the noise of the waves — and I had been listening to it for hours. A few steps away from the house a new cypress grew; every day I visited it and felt as if we made friends with it».     Read more… Read more »

Nikita Botanical Garden.

At the Nikitsky Botanical Garden there is an exotic looking site called Martian Cape. Its sides are covered by a little pine forest rising up from a craggy seashore.

This is probably how the Crimea’s seashore near the village of Nikita looked like on June 10, 1811, when an ukase was signed in St. Petersburg decreeting the establishment of the Imperial State Botanical garden in the Crimea.

Its first director was Christian Steven, who arrived in Nikita in July 1812 and worked here till 1827.    More…. Read more »

Crimea in the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945)

On the night of June 22, 1941 unknown planes appeared over Sevastopol. Bomb explosions shook the city. There were first demolitions and casualties. There were also first downed enemy planes… The time was 3:13 a.m. A wartime calendar had come into effect.

Sea mines burst in the city. Nazi pilots used them to block off the ships in the bay so as later to destroy them in air raids but the mines dropped on residential houses instead of the bay.

But blitz failed, however. The Black Sea Fleet under the command of Admiral F.S. Oktyabrsky (1899-1969) was one of the first formations to have faced the enemy attack in an organized manner.  Read more…  Read more »

Sevastopol at the Crimean War 1853 – 1856.

Sevastopol is a city of the wonderful destiny and history.

It was founded in 1783 as a new fortress and got the name of Sevastopol which in Greek means — “a city worth of worship”.

The city has justified its proud name; it has become a symbol of military valor and unexampled heroism. The Crimean War (October 1853 – February 1856) was a conflict fought between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the French, the British, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Sardinia. Read more »

The History of the Crimea till 1783.

 

The Crimea has a long and rich history. The most ancient mention of the Crimea in the world literature is that of Homer. The time of creation of his great poem dates back to the IX-VII cc. ВС. These lines from Homer’s «Odyssey» are well known in the historical literature:

«There lies the Cimmerians’ country covered by an eternally Wet fog and shadows of clouds; never shows To people his brilliant face Helios…»

The first written mention of the Crimea occurs in Herodotus (485 — 425 ВС) who visited Olbia in the V century ВС. The «Father of History» reports that » the Tauri tribe inhabits the mountainous country adjoining the sea and jutting out into the Pont as far as the Rocky Peninsula…»

This territory, called Taurica or Taurida, was occupied by the Tauri till the 1st century AD. They were farmers and fishermen, knew pottery and how to cast bronze. The Tauri’s main deity was the Maiden, who personified life.  Read more… Read more »

Animals’ life in the Crimea.

Scientists believe that there may be as many as 30 million different living organisms in the world. About 5000 of them are wide mammals, 8,000 birds, 6,000 — reptiles, 2,000 -amphibians. As for the Crimea, there are about 55 species of wild animals, 300 species of birds, 14 species of reptiles and 6 species of amphibians.

Besides in the fresh water reservoirs dwell 30 species of fish, and 10,000 species of invertebrates. All the mammals are subdivided into orders: Insectivore -6 species, Chiropters -18 species, Rodents — 14 species, Predators — 8 species, Cetaceans — 3 species, Artiodactyls — 4 species.

Distribution of animals in the Crimea is uneven. It is determined by different landscape conditions and the degree of exploration of the territory of the peninsula. The common mammals of the steppe Crimea are the rodents. The harvest mouse, gopher, hamster are active day and night, feeding on a diet of seeds. Their enemies are polecat, marten and fox. Read more…  Read more »

The Crimean endemics.

The natural conditions of the Crimea are rather various.

The seaside slopes resemble the landscapes of many countries: Greece, Italy, Spain and Switzerland.

The higher plants number more than 2400 species, 240(10%) of them are endemics. There are more than 400 species of vertebrates, i.e. having the spinal column, 20 % of them are endemics. All Crimean endemics are listed in the Red Data Book.

In the biological respect the Crimea is an island. The salty littoral of Sivash is an insuperable obstacle for the most of species. So some neoendemics appeared.

Some of the Crimean endemics are still usual species: folded snowdrop, Crimean edelweiss, Crimean finch, black-necked jay, field vole of Iphigenia, Crimean black fox, Crimean carabus, and Crimean rodent. Read more »

The Crimean vegetation.

The Crimean vegetation is determined mainly by its climate which differs across the peninsula. Hot and wet climate supports forests of large trees; a drier climate may support only short grasses.

Vegetation in the Crimea is varied and rich. There are more than 3,000 species of natural and cultivated plants. Their density per sq. km (500 species) is much higher than that in the Mediterranean countries (8,3).

The territory of the Crimea is divided in two unequal parts: the steppe region and the mountain region. In the steppe Crimea, which is the driest part of the peninsula, short grasses, sagebrush, feather grass are the only types of vegetation, which can survive.

Taller grasses grow in areas with slightly more precipitation. These are known as grassland areas. Read more »

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