Posts Tagged ‘ЮБК’

Yalta («Coast»)

Yalta («Coast») stretches along the coast of a sea bay on the slope of the Main Ridge of the Crimean Mountains. In ancient times the Greek settlement of Jalita existed on this territory. In the Middle Ages there was the Byzantine and Genoese settlement, they named it as Kaulita.

In 1837 it was turned into a district city which began to be developed according to the 1843 plan.

At the end of the 19th century Yalta has a rapid growth, and the development of valleys of the Derekoika and the Uchan-Su Rivers.

Now it is a significant resort and cultural centre whose boundaries widened thanks to multistory housing developments on the adjoining slopes. The city territory incorporates land from the mount Ayu-dag to the Sarych Cape.

Greater Yalta is a 70-km stretch of the South Crimean coast washed by the Black Sea. The mount Ayu-dag (“Mount Bear”) is a kind of signpost to Greater Yalta. Farther on the highway goes past Gurzuf, the Nikita Botanical Gardens and Massandra.

The resorts and sights of interest located to the west are Livadia, Oreanda, Gaspra, Koreiz, Miskhor, Alupka and Simeiz

A snow-white city lies inside the enormous shell formed by a semicircle of mountains. Yalta is beautiful in her mountain setting, she is open only to the sea and the sun.

The cypresses with cones like little bells have already become a symbol of the resort. Magnificent magnolia trees fill the air with their perfume… And the sea adds the finishing touch to all this beauty. Once you arrive in Yalta you will fall in love with it!

We suggest you begin your walking tour of Yalta with an itinerary that might be called Along the City’s Streets, that is from the Yalta Hotel to the Oreanda. Its length is about 3 kilometers.

The Yalta Hotel is situated near Massandra Park. Massandra Beach stretches from the Yalta

Hotel to the port. At the intersection of streets stands Primorskiy Hotel (“Sea-coast Hotel”), one of the oldest in Yalta.

From here you can walk down to the port, in the other direction a small street leads uphill from the Hotel to Polikur Hill. Here is where Yalta originated, witness is the very name Polikur (“Paleokhor”), which in Greek language means «Old Place». The Hill formerly bore the name of St. John.

Yalta is the only port on the Crimea’s southern shore which can safely shelter ships in a storm. The talented engineer A.Bertier — Delagarde supervised the construction of the Yalta mole in 1889-1892.

Near the port there is the Yuzhnaya Hotel (“Southern Hotel”) which stands on Roosevelt Street. It is the oldest street in the city and was given its present name in honour of the outstanding statesman US President Franklin Roosevelt (1882-1945), who visited Yalta in February 1945.

Yalta‘s main street is the Embankment. It is favorite avenue of holiday makers for their even strolls. The Embankment te lined with shops, cafes, and restaurants. There is the oldest Tavrida Hotel, that was built in 1875. The great Russian poet Nickolai Nekrasov lived in Tavrida Hotel in room 68. He wrote the part of his long poem «Who Can Be Happy in Russia?» in Yalta.

If you cross the Hotel Tavrida’s courtyard, you will find yourself next to the boarding platform for the cable-car line which leads to the top of Darsan Hill. There is the Mound of Glory, erected in memory of the fallen during the Civil and Great Patriotic Wars.

If you walk past it, you will again come out into the Embankment. Soon you will reach the quays where the pleasure boats dock. Here you can embark on an excursion to the towns of the Greater Yalta: Alupka, Miskhor, Simeiz…

Ahead lies the second half of the Embankment. The Municipal Park, which merges with it, was established in the 1880s. There is the monument to the great Russian writer Anton Chekhov near Municipal Drama Theatre.

In 1900 the Moscow Art Theatre gave tour performances. The members of the company came to show the sick Chekhov his play «The Seagull». Chekhov was presented with palm leaves tied with a red ribbon bearing the inscription «To Anton Chekhov, a perfect interpreter of Russian reality.»

The great Russian singer Fyodor Chaliapin (1873-1838) sang on the stage of the Municipal Drama Theatre. His singing was accompanied by the outstanding Russian musician Sergey Rakhmaninov (1873-1943)

In the house across the theatre lived the famous Ukrainian poetess Lesia Ukrayinka (1871-1913) A bronze statue has been set up in her memory right in front of the house.

The final stop of the Embankment tour is the Oreanda hotel. Across from the hotel is a small public garden where the schooner Espanolahas been mounted. It has been built specially for the film about the sea-advantures.

Greater Alushta.

Alushta is an ancient town on the Crimea’s Southern Coast. Alushta inherited its name from the Byzantine fortress of Aluston, which was built here in the 6th century A.D. by order of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I (483-565) who also rebuilt the church of St. Sophia at Constantinople. In the present-day you can look round the remains of the Byzantine fortress, its defense tower and part of a wall. Alushta attracts tourists by its unusual climate, pleasant beaches and picturesque surroundings. (далее…)

Koktebel.

I greet you, in spring crucified,

My magnificent Koktebel!

Maximilian Voloshin

Koktebel… It sounds French, but originally it is a combination of three Turkic words: «kok» — blue, «tepe» -top, «el» — settling, land. Koktebel – it’s the “blue-top-settling”-land. It’s the land of the blue mountain peaks…

Nobody knows the year when Koktebel came into being. It is well known there was a Middle Age settlement here in the VIII century. The valleys around the mount Kara-Dag had been settled since that time.

At the beginning of the 1st century the legendary Cimmerians lived here, in the Middle Ages — the descendants of Tauri, Scythians mixed with the Bosphor peoples — Greeks, Sarmatians and Alans. In the 10th century the settlement was ruined by Pechenegs, nevertheless, life came back here soon.

A Crimean-Tatar village came into being here and at the beginning of the XIX century the people who came from Bulgaria settled in Koktebel. The settling was connected with Feodosia by a dusty earth road. (далее…)

The Crimean Cave Towns.

Not only the Khan’s Palace Museum attracts visitors to Bakhchisarai. No less popular are such historical monuments as Cave Towns. They were first mentioned in the written documents as far back as the 13-century. Their names are Kachi-Kalyon,   Eski Kermen,   Mangup  Bakla,   and Chufut- Kale.

The proper explanations to these astonishing monuments were made in the last century. The age of them is controversial. Some of them appeared in the 8 century — Kachi-Kalyon, Mangup in the 6th century, Eski-Kermen in the 5th century, and Bakla in the 4th century.The cave towns were first of all feudal castles and also medieval towns and monasteries situated in the natural fortresses — the table-like mounts with abrupt precipices.Kachi-Kalyon is situated in the valley of Kacha opposite the village of Bashtanovka. It appeared on the crossroads of trading ways and was known for its wine-presses. There were about 120 of them. More than 250 tons of grapes could be processed in them simultaneously. Pottery-making was highly developed too.

 

In the VIII -IX cc. a monastery sprang up there. The remains of it can be seen now. In 1778 the monastery ceased its functioning. In 1850’s St. Anastasia monastery appeared and existed up to 1921. The place is known for its spring with fresh sweet water. Opposite Kachi-Kalyon on the hill covered with forests a big graveyard is spread out. Probably, potters and smiths, cattle-breeders and carriers were buried there. (далее…)

Ancient Chersonesus.

Ancient Chersonesus was the last Greek colony emerge on the north coast of the Black Sea: it was founded in 422 ВС. In the words of Cicero it Was like a border sewn on the barbarian lands.

Chersonesus (Peninsula), was so named for its location on a peninsula between two bays. The city existed for 2,000 years. Agriculture, construction, pottery-making, bone-carving, and some other crafts flourished in Chersonesus. (далее…)

Sevastopol – the port of the Black Sea Fleet.

Sevastopol (“a city worth of worship”, Glorious City) has a special administrative status, a large sea port and a naval base of the Ukrainian and Russian Fleets, industrial, scientific and cultural center of the South of Ukraine.

The territory of Sevastopol was settled at the beginning of the 1st millenium ВС. The rests of the fortifications of a Tauri settlement of the IX century ВС were discovered in the outskirts of Inkerman (Uch-Bash (Three Heads) height). There are some burial grounds in the valley of the river Chernaya (Black river). There were Tauri (VII century ВС) settlements near Balaclava.

Homer describes the Bay of Balaclava as a port of Lestrigons where Odysseus stayed. There are ruins of ancient city-colony of Chersonesus (Peninsula) between two bays now known as

Karantinnaya and Pesochnaya. By the 1st century Chersonesus had fallen to the Roman Empire. Cherson was chief Byzantine bastion in the Crimea.

In 988 warriors of Kievan Prince Vladimir besieged Chersonesus. The residents of Chersonesus were forced to surrender their town. In the 13th century, Byzantium — began to decline, in the 14th century Cherson was left in ruins…

In 1770s Balaclava Bay became a naval base for ships of the Azov battleship flotilla. In spring 1773 the commander of the flotilla vice-admiral O.N. Senyavin (1716-1797) ordered to investigate the Bay of Akhtiar-Ak-Yar (White Precipice). The bay was investigated by the navigator I. Baturin from the battleship «Modon» under command of lieutenant F.F. Ushakov (1745-1817), future famous naval commander.

The bays were highly estimated by the commander of Russian troops in the Crimea Alexander Suvorov(1730-1800) who ordered to build fortifications at the bays and made them secure against the enemy’s battleships.

On November 17, 1782 the first Russian frigates «Khrabry» and «Ostorozhny» entered the harbour of Akhtiar for the winter stay. On the northern side of the bay the naval depots

built the barracks — the first building in the city to be. On January 11, 1783 vice-admiral F. A. Klokachev was appointed to»… command the fleets created on the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov.» The ships under his command entered Akhtiar on May 2, 1783. There were only 17 of them but it was already the Black Sea Fleet.

The construction of the port was conducted under supervision of flag-officer lieutenant

D.N.Senyavin(1763-1831), famous fleet commander to be.

On June 3,1783 the first stone buildings were laid: the house for the admiral, a wharf, a smithy and a chapel. On July 2, 1783 the commander of the squadron F.F. Mekenzi reported to Peterbourgh about creation of the small Admiralty. In the construction of the town many of the civilians from Crimea and the central Provinces of Russia were employed.

On January 10, 1784 in the instructions of Catherine II to Prince G. A. Potemkin it was advised that a strong fortress with a port and a military settlement should be built on the site of the village of Akhtiar.

In 1790 rear-admiral F.F. Ushakov became Commander of the Black Sea Fleet. In 1824 the public garden, now Primorsky boulevard, was laid, later appeared Matrosky and Historical.

In 1834 the first monument of Sevastopol was set up in honour of the heroic feat of the brig «Mercury».

In 1871 on the initiative of M.M. Miklukho-Maklay the Sea Biological Station of the Academy of Sciences was opened. In Sevastopol the electric «candle» of P. N. Yablochkov was invented. A.S. Popov installed radio stations on the battleships.

The Crimean war proved the necessity of a strong fleet.

In 1883 in Sevastopol the iron c-clad battleships were built and seven years later the town was officially proclaimed a sea fortress.

The Black Sea Fleet was the first to beat off the air attacks of the German fascists. The defense of Sevastopol lasted 250 days. On May 9, 1944 Sevastopol was liberated by the armies of the 4th Ukrainian Front. Day and night the torches of Eternal Glory burn over the Hero-City of Sevastopol. Sapun Mount and Malakhov hill hold them highest.

Sevastopol is a busy city. It fishes in distant Atlantic and builds giant cranes, discovers the mysteries of the sea and raises new housing blocks…

Under the administrative authority of Sevastopol there are 2 settlements and 2 villages.

Verkhnesadovoye (Upper Garden) is a village situated in the valley of Belbek River at the Highway Simferopol — Sevastopol. It appeared in 1850s. In the vicinity of the village there is a Tauri burial ground. During the defence of Sevastopol 5 seamen of the Black Sea Fleet at the cost of their lives stopped the German tanks in November 1941. There is the Diorama dedicated to the heroic feat of the seamen. The farm center of Verkhnesadovoye specializes in vine growing and gardening.

Kacha is a settlement situated 23 km from Sevastopol at the Black Sea coast not far from the estuary of the River Kacha. The settlement was founded in 1912 when the first in Russia pilot school was transferred here. The school existed till 1941. Among its cadets were the famous pilots G.P. Baidukov (1928), S.P.Suprun (1931), P.D. Osipenko (1932), B.F. Safonov (1934) , A.I. Pokryshkin(1939), Amet-Khan Sultan (1940),- the military school of pilots being transferred to Volgograd still bears the proud name of Kacha, glorified by the famous aces.

The farmers of Kacha are engaged in vine-growing and the farm center winery.

Kamyshovaya Bukhta(Rushy Bay) is a settlement founded in 1952 in connection with the organization of the Azov-Black Sea base of fishing and fish-processing. It lies at the Black Sea coast 13-km from Sevastopol. Kamyshovaya Bukhta is a base of the fishing industry union «Atlantika» which includes: fishing fleet, sheep-repairing yard, fish cannery and sea fish port.

Orlinoye (Aquiline) is a village situated in the Baidar-Valley on the high way Sevastopol — Yalta 35 km afar from Sevastopol. The village came into being in connection with construction of the new high way. In the vicinity of the village there are 25 archeological monuments including the rests of settlings of the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic Ages. There are the ruins of a Christian monastery (X-XV cc.) and a feudal castle of the XII-XIV cc.

The farm centre of Orlinoye supplies Sevastopol and the resorts of the South Cost of the Crimea with milk, meat, vegetables and fruits. The farmers are also engaged in wheat and tobacco growing as well as in raising vegetables under glass.

Lesia Ukrayinka in the Crimea.

The name of Lesia Ukrayinka went down in historv of the Ukrainian literature equally with the names of т Shevchenko and I. Franko.  Lesia Ukrainka’s poems were written in the Crimea. Lesia Ukrayinka lived in Yalta, Yevpatoria, Saki Balaclava and visited Bakhchisarai. 

For the first time she came to Yalta in 1888 when she was 17. In Yalta she created a series of poems «Travelling to the Sea» and «The Crimean Memoirs».

In January 1897 Lesia Ukrayinka again came to Yalta. The young poetess writes her first dramatic work «Iphigenia in Tauris».

In 1907-1908 Lesia Ukrayinka the third time came to the Crimea. She lived in Balaclava, Yalta and Yevpatoria.            Read more… (далее…)

Nikita Botanical Garden.

At the Nikitsky Botanical Garden there is an exotic looking site called Martian Cape. Its sides are covered by a little pine forest rising up from a craggy seashore.

This is probably how the Crimea’s seashore near the village of Nikita looked like on June 10, 1811, when an ukase was signed in St. Petersburg decreeting the establishment of the Imperial State Botanical garden in the Crimea.

Its first director was Christian Steven, who arrived in Nikita in July 1812 and worked here till 1827.    More…. (далее…)

Sevastopol at the Crimean War 1853 – 1856.

Sevastopol is a city of the wonderful destiny and history.

It was founded in 1783 as a new fortress and got the name of Sevastopol which in Greek means — “a city worth of worship”.

The city has justified its proud name; it has become a symbol of military valor and unexampled heroism. The Crimean War (October 1853 – February 1856) was a conflict fought between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the French, the British, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Sardinia. (далее…)

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